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4.   SOME RESULTS OF THE PEDAGOCICAL APPROACH
Part 2

3.2.2.4   PEDAGOGICAL AIM STRUCTURE4 The aim of upbringing is proper adulthood which is characterized by the following:

  1. MEANINGFUL EXISTENCE Someone who carries on a meaningful existence in an independent way gives evidence of the following in his way of living what is highly valued:

    1. Awareness of the demands of life (a clear idea that it is the highly valued which poses the demands of propriety to persons)
    2. Idea of being called upon (a clear understanding of the fact that in the first place a person has obligations and then privileges
    3. Leading a responsible life (a clear understanding that a person's way of life must show evidence that he practices what is highly valued)
    4. Responsibility for taking part (a keen awareness of the fact that a person must give an account of his part in the actualization of the highly valued)

  2. SELF-JUDGMENT AND SELF-UNDERSTANDING Someone who, in an independent way, can give expression to his quality of life in light of the highly valued does the following:

    1. Expression of moral judgment (he does not hesitate to seriously view his choices for and actions regarding the highly valued in terms of good and bad, right and wrong)
    2. Criticism of what is objectionable (he judges the choice and the doing of the unvalued, that which lacks human dignity, as unacceptable)
    3. Denunciation of what is objectionable (he is against any form of attack of that which is highly valued--by himself and by others)
    4. Proceeding to self-intervention (he criticizes himself firmly and sincerely if he does not promote in adequate ways what is highly valued)

  3. RESPECT FOR HUMAN DIGNITY The way of life of someone who actualizes what is highly valued in an independent way, is characterized by the following:

    1. Being aware of human dignity (he is aware that a person is not a thing or an animal and, therefore, must know and live the highly valued)
    2. Pursuit of humanness (he aims to promote all that is authentically human, e.g., by actualizing values)
    3. Knowledge of value actualization (he knows that to be a person means to be concerned with values and to use values as norms, as criteria)
    4. Respect for the human dignity of others (respect for the equal dignity of others, who are just as involved in values as is he, is shown)

  4. MORALLY INDEPENDENT CHOOSING AND RESPONSIBLE ACTING Someone who, in an independent way, actualizes the highly valued shows in his choosing and acting the following:

    1. Fidelity in choosing (what is highly valued is chosen with a firm devotion and with a deep sense of duty and is transformed into action)
    2. Choice in accordance with the demands of propriety (the propriety of choices made is continually taken into account)
    3. Acting in accordance with the demands of propriety Activity following proper choices is continually judged according to the following:
      1. independent choosing (responsibility is assumed for making choices which must promote the highly valued and for the actions which emanate from them. This responsibility is thus not shirked or passed on to someone else)
      2. independent acting
      3. acceptance of responsibility for choices
      4. acceptance of responsibility for actions
    4. Choice for the demands of propriety (there are choices for the highly valued and against the unworthy)
    5. Acceptance of personal responsibility (self responsibility and accountability for the above is accepted)

  5. NORM IDENTIFICATION Someone who commits himself in an independent way to the highly valued remains gladly involved in the following:

    1. The pursuit of propriety in one's choices (without external compulsion, but from internal conviction, there is a choice of the highly valued)
    2. Identification with particular norms (an unbreakable unity with particular norms, i.e., philosophy of life, is experienced and practiced)
    3. Adequate knowledge of norms (adequate study of life philosophy is undertaken)

  6. OUTLOOK ON LIFE (PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE) Someone who in an independent way holds and wants to live by the highly valued in a systematic way, continually works at the following:

    1. Acceptance of the particulars of a philosophy of life (agreement with one's own philosophy concerning what is highly valued is not an "ism" but an undeniable reality)
    2. Awareness of the demands of a philosophy of life (knowledge and acceptance that the highly valued is ordered in a particular hierarchy of demands of propriety in a philosophy of life)
    3. Knowledge of philosophy of life (a lasting study of the philosophy of life is undertaken and the calling for such a study is accepted)
    4. Perpetuation of philosophy of life (as an expression of the highly valued, a person's life philosophy is protected against "isms" and other forms of threat. To be embraced by the highly valued is not a mere viewing or contemplating of them but it is to be held by them. An adult does not have a view of life but rather a philosophy of life.


  1. For a complete description see:

    1. Landman, W. A.: n Antropologies-pedagogiese beskouing van beroepsorientering, HAUM, Cape Town, 1961, Ch. 5.
    2. Landman, W. A., S. G. Roos, C. R. Liebenberg, op. cit., Ch. 2 and 89-91.
    3. Landman, W. A.: Leesboek vir die Christen-opvoeder, op. cit., Chs. 4 & 5, 25-30.
    4. Viljoen, T. A. and J. J. Pienaar, op. cit., 70-74.
    5. Kilian, C. J. G. and T. A. Viljoen, op. cit., 230-238.

3.2.2.5   Comments

In terms of the essences taken up in this table, proper adulthood can be seen as:

  1. MEANINGFULNESS OF EXISTENCE

    1. that it is meaningful to do the following; or
    2. when the following is done life is meaningful:
      Living in trust, recognizing authority, understanding,
      giving meaning, exerting, exemplifying and emulating
      norms, venturing, gratitude, accountability, hope, design,
      fulfilling possibilities, respecting, self-understanding, freedom in adult ways.

  2. SELF-JUDGMENT AND UNDERSTANDING

    1. Independent understanding of the meaning of the following
      For personal living; or
    2. Independent judging of the following to be done properly:
      Live with adult trust, recognition of authority,
      understanding, giving meaning, exerting, etc.

  3. HUMAN DIGNITY

    1. Awareness that the following values are what must be realized; or
    2. awareness that living in accordance with the following is to live in a humanly dignified way: Adult trust, recognition of authority, understanding, giving meaning, etc.

  4. MORALLY INDEPENDENT CHOOSING AND ACTING

    1. In morally independent ways, i.e., without external coercion, must choose the following; or
    2. act in morally independent ways in light of the following:
      Adult trust, recognition of authority, etc.

  5. NORM-IDENTIFICATION

    Awareness that the following are norms (criteria, demands of Propriety) that must be unconditionally identified with:
    Adult trust, recognition of authority, etc.

  6. PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE

    Awareness that the following must be filled with particular philosophy of life contents, which is an integral part of a philosophy of life:
    Adult trust, etc.

    To "Lesson structure essences"